Gorgeous Gardens of the Victorian Age and Beyond

If you’re a lover of the outdoors, then you’re well aware that we’ve reached one of the most wonderful times of the year! The sun is shining, the weather is warming, and we’re leaving our winter dens to step outside and breathe in the fresh springtime air. April is also National Garden Month, which gives us a perfect excuse to don sunhats and gardening gloves and start cultivating our outdoor spaces.

While we’re very happy to be outside in our gardens again – turning the earth and planting seeds and bulbs that will bloom in the months ahead – this time of year also brings to mind the glorious gardens of the Victorian era. The Victorians were notorious for planting extravagant gardens, but they didn’t just plant pretty things for utilitarian or cosmetic purposes. Rather, their gardens reflected a larger philosophy about outdoor living in general.

In an attempt to create outdoor parlors for leisure and entertaining, Victorian landowners essentially turned their yards into natural extensions of their indoor environments. Utilizing both new and existing flora, they meticulously crafted elaborate layouts and arrangements outside their homes and cultivated them in ornate, structured ways that were pleasing to the human eye.

Victorian gardens, then, can be understood as a series of outdoor rooms, each with distinct “walls” (border hedges, fencing, paths), “floors” (lawns), and “doorways” (gates, arches, hedge openings). The “furniture” in these rooms consisted of trees, bushes, and flowers, as well as architectural adornments placed strategically throughout the gardens.

New technologies were created in the 19th century that allowed for better outdoor cultivation and landscaping. Invented by Edwin Beard Budding in 1830, the lawnmower aided in developing the basic garden “floor.” Manicured sections of lawn were planted and grown between pathways and major garden focal points, providing a uniform canvas on which to plant flowers in ornate, tightly controlled designs and patterns. While the lawn was pleasant enough to look at, the plants were the true works of art – ornamental, decorative, and meant to be admired.

The variety of plants and flowers in Victorian gardens grew in the 19th century, as well. Because England’s economic and cultural reach was rapidly expanding across the globe, Victorians had greater access to new and exotic plantlife. As a result, people began breeding and introducing impressive new floral varieties to their own gardens. Common Victorian flowers included begonias, chrysanthemums, orchids, snapdragons, roses, pansies, periwinkles, marigolds, petunias, primroses, morning glories, tulips, geraniums, and bluebells.

In what is now seen as a Golden Age of Horticulture, new gardening innovations began to grow in every direction during the Victorian Age. “Carpet bedding” involved planting foliage flowers closely together to create a tapestry or decorative “carpet” effect. (Think the lush, ornamental gardens at Disney’s Epcot.) “Specimen trees,” or unique trees grown primarily to be focal points, featured variegated leaves or impressive, distinct forms (like weeping willows). Trees such as spruces, elms, cherry trees, and willows also provided shade that was both decorative and functional.

Some of this new vegetation inspired entire themes in Victorian gardens. “Moon gardens” were created by growing plants and vines that bloomed all-white flowers. These garden “rooms” were gorgeous during the daytime, but they were especially mesmerizing in the twilight hours and at night. Moon gardens were some of the many Victorian gardens that featured “snowball bushes” such as hydrangeas and viburnums, with large white flowering heads that created striking décor along garden paths.

The “furniture” of Victorian gardens went well beyond flowers and trees, though. Ornate sculptures, birdbaths, statuary, fountains, and sundials were placed amid plants and trees to add classical elegance, while ornamental benches and gazebos provided attractive places to rest and entertain.

While many of us will be planting beautiful gardens of our own this spring, we probably won’t be planting anything quite as elaborate as the gardens surrounding Jane Austen’s Chawton Cottage. But we can certainly imagine the gardens that grew boldly and beautifully on expansive 19th century estates.

Several Victorian-style estate gardens have been recreated and preserved in the UK, including Gravetye Manor in Sussex; the Chawton House gardens in Hampshire; Waddeson Manor in Buckinghamshire; Bodnant Garden in Conwy, Wales; Biddulph Grange Garden in Staffordshire; Kew Gardens in London; Wakehurst Place in Sussex; and Cragside House in Northumberland.

But now that we’re able to start traveling more widely in the United States again, our wanderlust has us thinking about spectacular gardens we can visit closer to home. Below are a number of the most beautiful gardens you can visit in the United States to see unique and unexpected flowers, plants, and trees without having to fly across the ocean.

Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden – Richmond, VA

The historic Lewis Ginter Garden features 50 acres of themed gardens, winding pathways, and a classical domed conservatory. Themed gardens include a Rose Garden, a Children’s Garden, and a Cherry Tree Walk.

United States Botanic Garden – Washington, D.C.

Established in 1820, this living plant museum is the oldest continually operating public garden in the United States. Focal points include a vibrant rose garden and a two-acre “secret” garden called Bartholdi Park with the Fountain of Light and Water as its centerpiece.

Missouri Botanical Garden – St. Louis, MO

Founded more than 150 years ago, these garden grounds feature 79 acres of garden displays that include a 14-acre Japanese garden, the estate home of garden founder Henry Shaw, and a magnificent bearded iris garden with almost every color in the rainbow.

Portland Japanese Garden – Portland, OR

Tucked into the hills of Portland’s Washington Park, the Portland Japanese Garden features 12 acres with eight distinct garden styles. Explore tranquil garden ponds, an authentic Japanese Tea House, sand and stone gardens, and a stunning view of Mt. Hood.

New York Botanical Garden – Bronx, NY

Established in 1891, this impressive 250-acre garden – the largest in the United States – features 50 specialty gardens hosting more than a million plants and a Victorian-style glasshouse.

Desert Botanical Garden – Phoenix, AZ

One of the most unique gardens in the United States, the Desert Botanical Garden hosts more that 20,000 native desert plants, including an impressive variety of cacti and succulents.

Other notable American gardens include The Biltmore Estate in Ashville, NC, the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden in Dallas, TX, and Longwood Gardens in Kennett Square, PA.

We hope you’re able to visit one or two of these must-see gardens (or the dozens of other gorgeous public gardens across the U.S.) this spring or summer, and we hope you enjoy growing your own garden throughout the remaining sunny months of the year. If you need any help refreshing your garden décor, furniture, or accessories, you’re always welcome to shop our Garden Collection here.

Happy National Garden Month, and happy Spring!

Victorian Women Who Made the World a Better Place

The Victorian Age was a period of incredible growth and change in North America and most of Europe. Arriving on the heels of the Industrial Revolution, the Victorian era was marked by rapid advancements in science, technology, and medicine. Queen Victoria’s reign brought not only the proliferation of steam-driven transportation (trains and boats), but also culture-altering inventions such as photography, the telephone, and electric light.

But another important revolution of the Victorian era was a social one. During the 19th century, women began playing integral roles in almost every part of society – science, medicine, education reform, literature, social reform, etc. As you may have heard by now, March is Women’s History Month, and we’re happy to celebrate by taking a closer look at some of the exceptional, influential women who contributed most to their culture and their world. These women were the trailblazers and pioneers of their time, and they all made the world a better place.

Florence Nightingale

Nurse and Social Reformer


Florence Nightingale rose to prominence through her work during the Crimean War of 1853-56. Nightingale cared for wounded British soldiers at Constantinople, earning the name “The Lady with the Lamp” by making rounds overnight to check in on sick and wounded soldiers. Her work was instrumental in professionalizing nursing as an occupation, and she continued to elevate the reputation of women in medicine throughout the rest of her life. Nightingale founded a nursing school at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London and wrote prodigiously about health care in a way that made important medical information accessible to the working class.

Ada Lovelace

Mathematician and Writer


The only daughter of British Romantic poet Lord Byron, Ada Lovelace chose not to follow her father’s literary lead. Instead, with her mother’s encouragement, Ada pursued science and mathematics. Describing her approach as “poetical science,” Lovelace was especially interested in how mathematics could be applied to technological advancements. At just 17 years old, she developed a long friendship with British mathematician Charles Babbage, who had developed something called an “Analytical Engine” – an early version of the digital computer. While Babbage eventually became known as the “father of computers,” it was Lovelace who wrote and published what’s considered to be the first algorithm, or computer program. Lovelace recognized that Babbage’s creation had potential functions that transcended simple calculation, and as a result she is considered to be one of the world’s first computer programmers.

Elizabeth Fry

Prison Reformer and Humanitarian


Quaker and Christian philanthropist Elizabeth Fry dedicated her life to British prison and social reform. Compelled by her deep faith to go out into the world and actively do good works, Fry began researching poverty and imprisonment in England. In 1813, she visited Newgate Prison in London and discovered abysmal conditions there, including women and children crammed into small cells doing their own cooking and cleaning and sleeping on straw. Horrified by the conditions she found there, Fry determined to make the prison system more humane. Her work led to widespread reforms in the British prison system, and she also established an overnight shelter in London to help the homeless.

Harriet Martineau



A social theorist who penned influential books and essays about a wide range of social, political, and religious subjects, Harriet Martineau is often considered the first female sociologist. The early 19th century was a time when most “serious” social subjects – economics, politics, religion – were generally seen as the province of men. Refusing to be constrained by traditional gender roles, Martineau freely ventured into all of these fields and wrote influential works with an intellectual clarity that transcended contemporary expectations. Martineau was so significant that she was invited to Queen Victoria’s coronation in 1838. She even wrote her own autobiography in 1877, which was unusual for women at the time.

Emmeline Pankhurst

Suffragette and Social Reformer


In 1888, Emmeline Pankhurst founded the Women’s Franchise League to advocate for the right of both married and unmarried women to vote in Great Britain. Women’s suffrage had been restricted since the Reform Act of 1832, and Pankhurst spent most of her adult life trying to reverse that policy. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Pankhurst partnered with several suffragist organizations – some of which used violent methods and hunger strikes to bring greater awareness and urgency to their cause. She died in 1928, only months before the Representation of the People Act passed, extending the right to vote to all British women over 18 years old. Two years later, Pankhurst was honored with a statue in Victoria Tower Gardens near the Houses of Parliament.

Marie Curie



Born in 1867, Marie Curie was instrumental in developing the first X-ray machines and pioneering the studies of using radium and radioactivity in medicine. Her work in the field of radiation led to the production of mobile radiation labs, which were used on the battlefield during World War I. Known as “Little Curies,” these mobile radiography units were used to diagnose and treat over a million wounded soldiers. Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize (and the only woman to win the Nobel Prize twice), and she was the first woman to be buried in the French Parthenon based solely upon her life’s work (not based on her role as a wife or queen).

The Brontë Sisters

Novelists and Poets

Charlotte (1816-1855), Emily (1818-1848), and Anne (1820-1849)

The Brontë sisters – Charlotte, Emily, and Anne – grew up the daughters of an Anglican clergyman in the village of Haworth, on the Yorkshire moors. Their mother died just a year after Anne was born, and the sisters were often left at home together for long stretches of time. To keep themselves company and entertain each other, the sisters wrote stories and poetry from the time they were very young. In just two years, the girls published a series of novels that cemented their literary legacies: Anne’s Agnes Grey and Charlotte’s Jane Eyre in 1847, and Anne’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall and Emily’s Wuthering Heights in 1848.

Tragically, Emily and Anne both died of tuberculosis within a year of their publishing flurry. Charlotte lived another six years before she died of the same disease that took her sisters. But the sisters’ works – especially Wuthering Heights and Jane Eyre – have stood the test of time and inspired the imaginations of generations of readers and writers.

Emily Davies

Education Reformer


Born in Southampton, England, Emily Davies spent most of her life advocating for education and women’s right to university access. Davies moved to London in 1862 to edit the English Women’s Journal, and she soon developed a strong network of feminist and social reformer friends. Many of these women founded a women’s discussion group called the Kensington Society, who began working toward British women’s suffrage. These efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, but in 1869 Davies co-founded Girton College, Cambridge – the first English university college that educated women.

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

Physician and Surgeon


Elizabeth Garrett Anderson began her medical career as a nurse. But when feminist trailblazers Emily Davies and Elizabeth Blackwell (America’s first female physician) recognized her talent and potential, they encouraged her to try to become a doctor. Anderson’s efforts to enroll in medical school were denied at first, but she persevered and eventually became the first woman in Britain to qualify as a physician and surgeon. Anderson opened her own private practice before co-founding the New Hospital for Women – a hospital staffed entirely by women – in London in 1872. Never quite done paving new paths for women, Anderson also served as the first dean of a medical school in England and the first female mayor in Great Britain (in Aldeburgh, on the Suffolk Coast).

Queen Victoria

Queen (It’s right there in her name!)


No list of prominent Victorian women would be complete without acknowledging the woman who gave the era its name. A resolute, indomitable woman who fundamentally reformed the British monarchy during her 64-year reign, Queen Victoria expanded the British Empire to encompass 400 million subjects across a quarter of the globe. Her reign also saw extraordinary advancements in science, medicine, technology, and engineering.

The family life Victoria built with her beloved Prince Albert served as a much-admired model of a loving family unit, while her insistence on separating the royal crown from the internal and external political machinations of Great Britain changed the essence of the British monarchy for the next hundred-plus years. Perhaps most importantly, though, Victoria stood as a paragon of moral and social stability in an age defined by rapid expansion and change.

Celebrating Twelfth Night

If you’re familiar with the classic Christmas carol “The 12 Days of Christmas,” you likely see it as either a really fun countdown song (see: John Denver & The Muppets’ rendition) or a cute carol featuring a lot of birds that goes on a bit too long.

What you might not know is that “The 12 Days of Christmas” isn’t actually a countdown song leading up to Christmas, but instead is a song celebrating a period of time after Christmas. The 12 days of Christmas, which begins on Christmas Day, is a seasonal celebration leading up to the Epiphany, or the day on which – according to the New Testament – the three Magi (or Wise Men) visited the newborn Jesus in Bethlehem and recognized him as the son of God.

During the Middle Ages, the Advent season leading up to Christmas consisted of fasting, restraint, and quiet anticipation. Christmas Day, then, kicked off a 12-day season of parties, feasts, balls, and other celebrations that continued until the Epiphany (or Three Kings Day) on January 6th.

The night before Epiphany is called Twelfth Night, and it’s generally known in much of Europe as a night of preparation for the end of Christmastide celebrations. In many countries, so-called “king cakes” – dense, rich fruitcakes – are baked on Twelfth Night. In early 19th century England, a bean or a pea was baked into Twelfth Night cakes. When the cake was eaten the next day, whoever discovered the bean was named king or queen for the day.

Twelfth Night is also the night when families finish removing Christmas trees, ornaments, and decorations in their homes. It’s a night of putting away the holidays, which is always a little wistful. But it’s also a joyous, celebratory night that includes the singing of carols, magnificent feasting, and the performance of plays. William Shakespeare’s comedy Twelfth Night, first performed in 1601, plays into the holiday’s historical association with lighthearted confusion and practical jokes.

In historic England, Twelfth Night and Epiphany feasts leaned heavily into foods and drinks that tasted of ginger, cinnamon, and other rich spices associated with the holiday. And one drink in particular was the star: Wassail. Derived from an Old Norse word, wassail (pronounced WAH-sel) is a drink made with mulled cider, apples, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, and other spices. It’s a warm, delicious drink that exudes all the fragrant sweetness of the holidays. Wassail was mixed in large communal bowl and served during Epiphany feasts, and it was taken from home to home as neighbors wished each other good cheer. This is where the Christmas carol “The Wassail Song” (“Here we come a-wassailing”) comes from!

The holidays are winding down now and many of us have already started to put away our decorations, but there’s still a lot of joy to be shared and experienced. On this Twelfth Night (Epiphany Eve), we’d like to wish you good fortune in the coming year. We’d also like to offer you a wassail recipe that you can enjoy and share with your family tonight or tomorrow. Here in Kansas City, some of us will be mixing up a batch and toasting to good health and happiness in the New Year. Wherever you are tonight, we hope you’ll raise a warm cup of something special and do the same. Cheers, and happy Twelfth Night!



  • 3-6 Small Apples
  • 2-3 tbs Brown Sugar
  • 1½ qts Sweet Apple Cider
  • 1 Orange, peeled and juiced
  • Cinnamon Sticks
  • Fresh Grated Nutmeg (for topping)


  • Preheat oven to 375F. Core the apples and stuff with brown sugar. Place on a baking sheet with a little water to help steam them. Roast approximately 45 minutes or until tender.
  • While the apples are roasting, add cider, orange juice, orange peel and 2 cinnamon sticks to a pot and heat over low to medium low heat. (For more adventurous flavor or boozy undertones, you could also add cloves, allspice, bitters, and rum.) Once the drink is warm and fragrant, remove the cinnamon sticks and orange peel and skim spices.
  • Once the apples are done roasting, carefully peel them and mash them up. Add mashed apples to cider and blend with an immersion blender until smooth. The apples will add some body to the drink and give it extra apple flavor. Alternately, you could carefully add the whole roasted apples to the drink or even slice them in wedges or rings and let them float.
  • Pour into mugs, place a cinnamon stick in each mug, sprinkle fresh grated nutmeg on top, and serve.


Winter Solstice 2020: A Bright Light on the Longest Night

Today is the Winter Solstice – the first day of winter and the shortest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere. Traditionally, this day of longest darkness and shortest light is a time to pause and reflect. It’s a time to think about what has passed and what is yet to come.

The darkest days of the year are behind us now. After today, the days will gradually grow longer again. The sun will linger a bit longer in the sky, eventually bringing renewal and regeneration as winter wanes and spring returns. This year in particular – a year when so many of us have experienced myriad types of darkness and loss – this reflective pause is especially poignant.

This year’s Winter Solstice also brings with it a rather uncommon occurrence. The planets Jupiter and Saturn align from our perspective every 20 years, but it’s been almost 800 years since they’ve been as close together as they’ll be tonight. When you look up into the sky this evening, you’ll see what appears to be a double-planet star sometimes known as the “Christmas Star,” or the “Star of Bethlehem.” The light of Jupiter and Saturn will create a brilliantly bright effect that might recall the star from the nativity story in the Gospel of Matthew – the star of wonder that guided the three Wise Men to the newborn Jesus in Bethlehem.

The star that appeared on the night of the nativity story might have been the same star we’ll see tonight, or it might have been a rarer triple planetary conjunction of Venus, Saturn, and Jupiter. Either way, tonight’s planetary alignment – or “Solstice Star” – will be something special to behold. For those of us who live in the Northern Hemisphere, the best time to see this phenomenon will be about 45 minutes after sunset tonight. When that time comes, walk outside and gaze into the southwestern sky. For best results, carry a warm cup of mulled wine or hot cocoa outside with you and stand in silence and just take in the quiet, peaceful wonder of the season.

Percy Bysshe Shelley closed his 1820 poem “Ode to the West Wind” by asking “If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?” The Winter Solstice is a day of endings and beginnings and transitions. But most of all, it’s a day of hope. And that’s something we should all appreciate and celebrate as Christmas approaches and 2020 draws to a close.

Christmas Traditions in the Victorian Age

Christmastime is here! And when the most wonderful time of the year arrives, the most meaningful traditions aren’t far behind. Decorating Christmas trees and homes, giving gifts, exchanging Christmas cards…we eagerly anticipate these things every year. But traditions weren’t always traditions. All traditions have a beginning, and many of these beginnings happened during the Victorian Age.

Christmas at the beginning of the 19th century bore little resemblance to the Christmas we know today. Low literacy rates, huge economic disparities, and the lack of industrial advancement all combined to create very basic, unadorned celebrations. But as the century progressed – especially during reign of Queen Victoria – Great Britain began to experience technological, societal, and infrastructure advancements that changed the way Christmas was celebrated. By the end of the century, many of the traditions we know and love today had begun to take shape.

A few weeks ago, we explored the Victorian origins of Christmas greeting cards. Today, as we head into the heart of the Christmas season, we’re pausing to take a look at some of the other traditions that make this time of year so merry and memorable.


During the 19th century, England began to see industrial advancements that allowed a new middle class to develop and thrive. As a result, more people had disposable income to buy things that they might not have been able to afford before. Whereas Christmas gifts had once been largely hand-made and prohibitively expensive, new mechanization and mass-production techniques (including huge strides in printing and literacy) began to make toys, books, and other gifts more affordable and accessible to more of the population.

Giving fun gifts to children became more feasible, and exchanging gifts with friends and family became more practical and commonplace. A gift-giving tradition that had once been reserved for wealthy families at the New Year was shifted to Christmastime for a lot more people, and that certainly opened up the season to more widespread, collective celebration.

Christmas Trees:

Holly, ivy, fir trees, and other evergreens have been used to decorate during winter months going back millennia. Romans, Egyptians, Scandinavians, and other ancient cultures used evergreen décor to symbolize the eventual return of spring, while Christians saw evergreens as symbols of eternal life in Heaven. Trees and wreaths are the most familiar greenery of the winter, and this was nothing new for the Victorians.

But the idea of setting up a tree inside the home and decorating it as part of a holiday celebration was new. Fir trees (also known as Weinachtsbaums or Tannenbaums) decorated with gingerbread and fruit, glass ornaments, and candles had become common in Germany. The familiar carol “O Tannenbaum” – later “O Christmas Tree” – was written in Leipzig, Germany in 1824. While not technically a Christmas carol, “O Tannenbaum” was about constancy and faithfulness, and it has become a traditional holiday song.

Germany was the native country of Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert, who seems to have brought the Christmas tree tradition to England with him. During Christmastime in 1848, the Illustrated London News published an illustration of Victoria, Albert, and their family celebrating Christmas around an elaborately decorated tree. This led Christmas trees to become widely popular in both England and America in the following years, and the tradition only continued to grow. To this day, it’s hard to think of a pop culture Christmas story that doesn’t feature a Christmas tree in some memorable way.

Christmas Crackers:

In 1840, an industrious London baker named Tom Smith traveled to Paris and discovered the “bon bon” – a French treat featuring a sugared almond wrapped in tissue paper with a twist on either end. Smith began to make his own bon bons when he returned to London, but in 1847 decided to add a dramatic twist to the treat.

Inspired by the crackling sound of logs in a fireplace, Smith decided to recreate the sound by layering two strips of paper together with silver fulminate on one side and an abrasive surface on the other. The paper was wrapped around a tube and twisted on either end. When the sides of the wrapper were pulled, the friction created a surprising popping or “cracking” sound. Smith placed a variety of jokes and assorted treats inside the cracker tubes, and the novelty was an immediate hit. Smith’s fun Christmas tradition has continued to delight millions for over 150 years.

St. Nickolas / Santa Claus / Father Christmas

This one is a bit tricky because in modern times, these folk figures seem to blur together. But it all started with St. Nicholas – a Bishop born in Asia Minor (now Turkey) in the 3rd century AD. During his life, Nicholas earned a reputation for being incredibly kind and generous – especially to the poor and less fortunate. The traditions of giving secret gifts and placing gifts in stockings are attributed to him. Nicholas was exiled during a Christian purge by Emperor Diocletian and died in the year 343 on December 6th (now known as St. Nicholas Day), but he was later canonized as a saint by the Catholic church, and his charitable legend was preserved for centuries.

After the European Reformation of the 14th century, the veneration of saints (St. Nicholas among them) fell out of favor. To fill the void of a kindly figure who spread cheer during midwinter festivals, a folk character with colorful robes and a long beard was created. The name “Father Christmas” first emerged in 17th century England, and the character became the most familiar embodiment of Christmas revelry through the Victorian Age.

As Christmas grew in prominence during the 19th century, writers and artists began discovering and re-telling the stories of various holiday folk characters. As a result, St. Nicholas and Father Christmas experienced a renaissance of sorts. In 1823, the Troy, New York Sentinel published an anonymous poem (later attributed to American writer named Clement Clarke Moore) called “A Visit from St. Nicholas.” Better known today as “’Twas the Night Before Christmas,” the poem had an immediate and dramatic impact on how the St. Nicholas character was perceived. St. Nicholas was now modernized, and Moore created many of the physical characteristics we now associate with the character.

The traditional Dutch name for St. Nicholas, “Sinterklaas,” soon morphed into “Santa Claus,” and the Father Christmas and Santa Claus figures of British and American cultures began to merge in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Whatever he’s called and however he’s depicted, one thing that has never changed is that Santa/St. Nicholas/Father Christmas has always represented the very best of the holiday season: Cheer, joy, generosity, and good will.

Boxing Day

Non-British people who are unfamiliar with the tradition sometimes think Boxing Day is a day for boxing up discarded gift wrap or boxing up gifts to return, but Boxing Day actually began as a much more charitable occasion. Dating back to the Middle Ages, St. Steven’s Day was the day when church alms boxes – which were used to collect money for those in need – were opened and their contents distributed to the poor. In the 1830s, the British designated this day “Boxing Day” and determined that it would occur the day after Christmas, or December 26th. Boxing Day was also traditionally a day when wealthier British families gave their servants boxes of monetary gifts and leftovers from the previous day’s Christmas feast (and the day off!).

Today, Boxing Day is primarily associated with shopping and sports in the UK and other former British territories (including Canada, Australia, and New Zealand). It’s still a designated holiday, but much of its original meaning has been lost. Still, songs such as the Christmas carol “Good King Wenceslas” carry reminders of the day’s origins. Written in 1853, the carol is set on St. Stephen’s Day and celebrates a wealthy king who was renowned for his generosity toward the poor. The song ties Boxing Day into the Victorian focus on charity for those less fortunate during the holiday.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this look back at some of the most prominent Christmas customs and traditions of the Victorian Age. That unforgettable period has left a lasting impression on how most of us experience the holiday season. From pulling ancient customs into 19th century “modernity” to placing a greater emphasis on family, charity, and the importance of Christmas Day as the center of the holidays, the Victorians left a rich legacy to which we’re all indebted. And that’s definitely worth remembering and celebrating, even as we enjoy celebrating new traditions of our own!

Season’s Greetings: The Victorian Origins of the Greeting Card

Sending Christmas cards to friends and family has become as much a part of the holiday season as decorating trees, wrapping gifts, and putting up holiday lights. We all love these traditions, but we don’t really think often about why we do them. They’re just something we do.

But the tradition of sending Christmas cards is one that stretches back to the early Victorian age (over 150 years ago), and its history is actually pretty fascinating. The first Christmas card wasn’t sent out of obligation or sentiment, but because its sender was rather panicked and stressed out during the holidays. (And honestly, who can’t relate?)

Henry Cole, a well-heeled educator and supporter of the arts in Victorian England, knew a lot of people, and a lot of people knew him. Because advancements in the British postal system had made sending letters very easy and affordable, Cole had started getting inundated with correspondence from many of his friends and colleagues. By the time the holidays arrived in 1843 (coincidentally, the same year Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol was first published), Cole was worried that he wouldn’t have time to respond to everyone in his social circle and that people would find his lack of correspondence rude.

But Cole had an idea. He commissioned an artist friend by the name of J.C. Horsley to design and illustrate a scene that Cole described to him: A family gathered round a table, festively sipping wine as scenes of seasonal charity and acts of goodwill flanked each side. The postcard carried a simple, sendable message in the center, and a line in the bottom right allowed Cole to quickly personalize it with his signature.

And so the first holiday (post)card was born. Cole had 1,000 of these cards printed and mailed out, and only 21 have survived. But Cole’s creation sparked a tradition that has grown and evolved ever since.

Despite the success of Cole’s postcard idea, the card-sending tradition took several decades to really take off. For one thing, literacy rates were still catching up with printing advancements. But printing methods were also still relatively expensive, so few people or businesses could afford to commission and print cards to send out. This changed in the 1850s, when a British artist named George Baxter invented a printing method that allowed cheaper mass production of color prints.

Even after Baxter’s creation, though, there wasn’t really a clear roadmap for successful Christmas cards. Because there were neither traditional greetings nor familiar Christmas iconography in British or American culture, holiday postcards were kind of all over the place and reflected a wide range of themes and images. Victorian tastes in art and humor ran the full gamut, and some of those early postcards were just plain weird. Below is a sampling of some of the most eclectic.

Victorians were particularly interested in unique fantasy creatures and animals, and greeting cards of the era reflected these tastes and trends. After all, greeting cards and postcards were used more to delight and entertain than they were to fulfill an expected social obligation. The more visually interesting and unexpected, the better. This was especially evident in the two kinds of animal postcards that emerged at the time. Some were cute and relatively safe:

But some were more whimsical and outright peculiar:

Animals were far from the only cards embraced by the Victorians, though. By the late 1800s, the more familiar iconography of Christmas started taking shape. As a result, a number of distinct and consistent themes began to emerge. From the silly to the serious to the sacred, Victorian holiday greeting cards and postcards are a visual feast. Below are examples of some of the major categories these cards started falling into.



Kids and the Anticipation of Christmas:


Angels and Spirituality:

Socialites and Aristocracy:

Winter Activities:

Victorian Ladies:

And, of course, a healthy mix of the weird and wonderful:

So as you choose, fill out, and mail your Christmas cards this year, remember that there’s no real right way to do it. The original card was created because its sender ran out of time, and the next few decades were a free-for-all of people sending a wide variety of strange, sweet, and silly greetings to the people closest to them. The important thing is to make your cards reflect yourself, the people to whom you’re sending them, or (ideally) both! Especially this year, just embrace what you love and share it with the people who mean the most to you.

[Note: Many of the designs in this post have been recreated and turned into Christmas cards by Victorian Trading Co. in recent years. To browse our vintage greeting card collection, please feel free to visit us here. And thank you for reading!]

Shiver and Shudder: The Victorian Roots of Gothic Horror Stories

When most people think of 19th-century Romantic and Victorian fiction, what usually comes to mind are the works of Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, George Eliot, and the Brontë sisters. And with good reason—those works are wonderfully rich and historically distinctive. But another type of British fiction emerged during the 19th century that often flies under the radar (or hides in the shadows, as it were). And as the the temperatures begin to fall, the days grow shorter, and Halloween approaches, it’s fitting to revisit the darker side of classic British fiction.

The Romantic period that began during in the late 1700s / early 1800s came on the heels of the Enlightenment—an age in which art and literature primarily focused on order and rationalism. But making a distinct departure, Romantic poets such as William Blake, William Wordsworth, Percey Shelley, and Lord Byron began writing about what Wordsworth called “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.” These poets argued that the human mind is not a rational or orderly thing, and that art created by humans should be unshackled from neoclassical constraints and set free to reflect the tumultuous feelings people actually experience in their lives.

Romantic poetry and fiction are absolutely flooded with emotion. One need only read Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights to see how the tumult and tempest of love is played out in literary lives. But one of the most powerful human emotions is fear, and Romantic writers were not at all afraid of confronting it in their work. In fact, the Romantics and the Victorians were some of the first pioneers of gothic/horror fiction as a genre. Dante Alighieri had touched on it in The Inferno and Edgar Allan Poe began exploring Gothic themes in America, but it was the British writers who – more than any group – helped formalize a style of storytelling that took root in the dark corners of our minds and stayed there, haunting us ever since.

Below are five British novels/novellas written in the 1800s that laid the groundwork for modern horror and gothic fiction. Our current experience of Halloween owes a lot to these books and their writers, and it’s a pleasure to revisit and celebrate them during this haunted time of year.

Frankenstein (Mary Shelley, 1818)

Most people are familiar with the story: The brilliant young scientist Victor Frankenstein starts experimenting with dark and forbidden scientific techniques, and before long he has created a patchwork, hulking, grotesque monster. It’s a terrifying but fascinating look at a very 19th-century phenomenon: the frenetic, unwavering pursuit of science at all costs without ever stopping to question the moral consequences of those pursuits (at least until it’s too late).

The whole novel is phenomenal, but Mary Shelley’s true genius is in getting us to consider the question that’s at the heart of the book: Who’s more monstrous: The monster, or the man who created him?

Strange Case of Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde (Robert Louis Stevenson, 1888)

This gothic novella makes literal the split personalities we all hold buried inside us. Dr. Henry Jeckyll is the calm, collected, rational man who functions perfectly well and holds a respected, reputable place in British society. But when he ingests a chemical serum, Jeckyll turns into a brutish, violent lout who impulsively tramples and kills people. Hyde’s physical manifestation of Jeckyll’s internal rage is a dualistic trope that’s very familiar now (because of pop culture characters like The Hulk), but it’s easy to forget how new it was when Stevenson wrote his late-Victorian sci-fi horror story.

The Picture of Dorian Gray (Oscar Wilde, 1890)

More a psychological thriller than a pure horror story, Irish writer Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray explores the supernatural effects of unbridled hedonism and sensuality. After a young, handsome socialite named Dorian Gray has his portrait painted, he begins exploring a self-indulgent, sensualistic lifestyle that – while turning his portrait likeness into something old and grotesque – ends up keeping Dorian young and beautiful. As long as he keeps embracing debauchery, Dorian is able to stay perpetually young.

The novella’s ending reveals a deeper layer of Dorian’s dilemma, and he ultimately has to confront the consequences of his choices. While not straightforward horror, the supernatural and Gothic flavor of Dorian Gray paved the way for modern psychological thrillers like Hellraiser and A Clockwork Orange, which explore many of the same themes.

The Invisible Man (H.G. Wells, 1897)

Set in late-Victorian West Sussex, England, H.G. Wells’ novel The Invisible Man tells the story of a mysterious man named Griffin – a scientist who experiments with chemicals, turns himself invisible, and uses his newfound power to perpetrate random acts of brutality and violence. As much a mystery / science fiction story as a horror story, The Invisible Man predicted a question that’s been the basis of many genre stories in the last 40 or 50 years: When someone acquires superhuman abilities, what happens when they’re fundamentally flawed and broken people? The results have been explored in antihero stories as recent as Watchmen, The Boys, and Brightburn – all of which owe a big debt to Wells’ chilling tale.

Dracula (Bram Stoker, 1897)

Another late-Victorian classic, Dracula doesn’t need much introduction or explanation. It’s a masterpiece of horror and Gothic storytelling that’s probably more famous for what it spawned than what it originally was: A cautionary tale about the indulgence of human passions and desire. On the one hand, it’s very Romantic in that it explores the unbridled human excess and emotion. On the other hand, it’s very Victorian in that it warns of the consequences of these things.

Some of the novels on this list were influential in tangential ways. We know the story types and tropes without really being able to recall them immediately. Ultimately, though, Dracula spawned its own specific fiction type that has resonated clearly for over a century: Nosferatu, The Lost Boys, True Blood, Interview with the Vampire, and – yes, we have to acknowledge it – Twilight.

So there we have it: Five 19th-century British horror/Gothic/sci-fi novels that will make your Halloween week both smarter and spookier. You probably know the genres and the characters from modern Victorian-based stories like Penny Dreadful and League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. But why not round out your love of Romantic and Victorian culture by exploring the original dark places where things go bump in the night?

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